May 16, 2020

PSD2: open banking and the future of payments

Olivia Minnock
5 min
Gavin Littlejohn, Chairman FDATA Global and Fintech Stakeholder Group Convenor for UK Open Banking Implementation Entity, offers his thoughts on the imp...

Gavin Littlejohn, Chairman FDATA Global and Fintech Stakeholder Group Convenor for UK Open Banking Implementation Entity, offers his thoughts on the impact of open finance and the need to regulate.


The world of finance has been turned on its head by open banking, allowing for the sharing of data with the aim of transforming customer experience. In Europe, and in particular the UK, fintechs have sprung up to both challenge and benefit incumbents. The urgency to prepare for APIs, the rise of challengers, and all open banking has to offer has been compounded by regulation. In 2018, the European Union implemented PSD2, the second Payment Services Directive, updating legislation for payments. The update acknowledges the rise of fintechs and will seek to ensure security and consumer protection while evening the playing field for challengers.

PSD2 will come into full force in the UK in September, and even with Brexit and the EU’s jurisdiction only applying to member states, such directives will have a global impact since any organisation that does business in an EU member state will be impacted. Gavin Littlejohn, Chair of the Financial Data Technology association which campaigns on banking and financing issues across the globe, also sits on the steering committee for open banking in the UK. “This has given me a lot of insight into how implementation takes place, the pros and cons and types of processes,” he comments. We caught up with Littlejohn at Money20/20 Asia to benefit from some of this insight into developments in the open banking arena.

Littlejohn says regulation is necessary with so many changes going on in the finance world, and can make life easier for both incumbents and tech startups. “If you look at the challenges of engineering, risk and complexity, it’s important from both a regulatory and technology perspective that we standardise the areas where it makes sense to standardise. From my own perspective as an entrepreneur as well as the companies I work with, you want to spend your time solving customer-facing problems – not problems with the plumbing.” Littlejohn says that the next big challenge finance is facing in the UK especially will be to implement PSD2 in a way that does not impede access or hinder the customer journey.

“Across the banking landscape, requirements are for financial services to sell their financial products in a compliant way, digitally”, he outlines. For this to work, organisations must endeavour to know their customer inside out and leverage that all-important resource, data. “The open banking and open finance movement will create a great opportunity for banks to be better at their job,” Littlejohn argues. “At present, from the customer perspective they suffer from relatively low access to financial advice. Any applications that help empower customers to solve their problems are only as smart as the data you put into them – so open banking enables that customer to see a true picture of their financial self.”

However, as huge as the rewards can be, when dealing with this data, it’s important to keep it safe and remember who has the right to it. As Littlejohn is quick to emphasise, data belongs to the subject, in this case, the customer. “The customer has the right to choose the services that better meet their needs, and yes, some customers will be fearful of sharing their financial data, but on the other end of the spectrum is the knowledge that you can only get a better outcome if you know you have the capability and the assets at your disposal to be able to compare and contrast.”

With permission, aggregating data can make life more seamless for any consumer dealing with their finances. “My experience of this domain is that customers have a variety of different details. A couple or family, for example, might have different credit cards and savings accounts, a family might have one account to pay bills and one to save for parties – and usually this is not all through the same provider. In order to facilitate simple things like budgeting and making good financial choices, then, being able to combine your data from different sources is really helpful.”


This is already visible with big banks in the UK as well as fintechs like Monzo which work to equip customers with the right knowledge to make better financial decisions, and Littlejohn says that consumers and businesses alike are beginning to truly embrace such opportunities. “Looking at the UK model as well as other markets, the banking sector was very resistant to open banking to start with, but now they know they’ve got it they’re coming to understand it’s a great opportunity for them to get to know where their customers are when they’re not with them.”

Large banks are all beginning to move with the times says Littlejohn, and this is only set to continue. “If you were to go to RBS, Barclays, HSBC or Lloyd’s, you’ll be able to download and use their open banking app where you can see financial services as well as the fintechs in the market. There’s a lot of innovation and competition coming in.” In particular, PSD2 will also allow for third-party initiation of bank-to-bank transfer. “The alternative is peeling a card out of your wallet and making a payment that way, so there’s different pathways,” says Littlejohn, adding: “The payment capability, I would presume, will eventually be cheaper than paying via the card system. Then, one would also presume, eventually the actual user experience will encourage consumers to buy things.”

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Jun 19, 2021

AI and the future of global trade

Michael Boguslavsky, Head of A...
3 min
Boguslavsky explores AI's potential in trade finance; could it overcome traditional barriers and usher in a new era of financial transformation?

Artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming entrenched in our daily lives, but the technology is still surrounded by misconceptions and skepticism. Ask the public and they may jump to dystopian scenarios where robots have taken over the world. 

While this makes for a good sci-fi blockbuster plot, the reality is different and more benign. Those products that Amazon suggested you buy? AI. That TV series you were recommended to watch on Netflix? AI. That self-driving Tesla car you crave to take for a spin? You guessed it: AI.

There is no single industry that is not being re-shaped by technology. Until recently, however, there was one noteworthy exception: global trade. Fortunately, that is slowly changing.

The mechanism that underpins global trade – trade finance – is an industry that remains largely paper-based and reliant on manual processes. This US$18tn a year industry is now being influenced by a new wave of technological innovation, including AI.

Exploring the potential of AI in Trade Finance

AI refers to the use of computer-aided systems to help people make decisions or make decisions for them. It relies on large volumes of data and models to make sense of information and draw intelligence. 

In trade finance, AI is helpful in analysing quantitative data, and the repetitive nature of trade finance means that there is a lot of non-traditional data at our disposal. 

This means that when trade finance providers need to assess the risks of funding a transaction, AI models can be a very efficient tool for data analysis and reveal intelligence and risks relating to small companies.

AI helps the industry move beyond traditional credit scoring processes, which are often outdated and remain reliant on historical accounting entries – a barrier that prevents small companies from accessing trade finance and has resulted in a $1.5tn global shortfall. 

Overcoming the barriers

AI can tackle this shortfall by creating accurate credit scoring models. This can include a company’s payment history, measure the risks of funding a transaction, identify supply chain risks, and benchmark them against their peer group.

Trade finance providers can use this information to communicate effectively with their SME clients, ultimately helping establish better business relationships.

Towards a technological utopia?

The adoption of AI has the potential to do a lot of good in the industry, and the industry is in the early stages of radical transformation.

Advances are driven by fintechs as well as a willingness to change. The industry is working together to create new infrastructure for distributing trade finance assets to other investors in a transparent, standardised format. 

The creation of infrastructure is possible due to improvements in technology and integrated across the trade ecosystem in cooperation with banks, insurers, and other industry participants. 

It’s collaboration at its best: together, the industry is using technology to re-shape global trade as we know it.

This article was contributed by Michael Boguslavsky, Head of AI at Tradeteq

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